Pulled elbows

Annie is a 2 year old who has a painful arm. Her mum was holding her hand as she walked along the pavement. Annie tripped and Annie’s mum tried to stop the fall. Since then she hasn’t been using the arm as much.   Thanks to Simon Craig for his post-publication contribution.   Anatomy The…

Foot x-rays

1. Check you have the right views. There are two views in foot x-rays DP (dorsal-plantar) and oblique. Both should ideally be done when weight-bearing if your patient can manage it.   2. Review the bones.  Work round the bones one by one (including the metatarsals). Start proximally and work your way down, going medial…

C-spine x-ray interpretation

The ABC’s of the cervical spine provide a helpful mnemonic to guide the systematic assessment of these x-rays. Remember; you require all three views (lateral, AP and odontoid/open mouth view) for an adequate study. Cite this article as: Partyka, C. C-spine x-ray interpretation, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2017. Available at: http://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.13656

Mandible x-rays

An orthopantomogram (OPG) is a good view to demonstrate most mandibular fractures.   A PA mandible shows the displacement of fractures. It also demonstrates symphysis menti fractures which can be missed on the OPG. If an OPG cannot be obtained, a lateral view can be helpful. The body and ramus can be viewed along with…

Facial bone x-rays

There are two views – occipito-mental view and occipito-mental 30o view The occipito-mental view demonstrates the upper and middle thirds of the face including the orbital margins, frontal sinuses, zygomatic arches and maxillary antra The occipito-mental 30o view shows 30o of caudal angulation. The orbits are seen less well, but zygomatic arches and the walls…

Ankle x-rays

The ankle consists of three bones – the tibia, the fibula, and the talus. The ankle also consist of two joints – the ankle joint (where the tibia, fibula and talus meet) and the syndesmosis joint (the joint between the tibia and fibula which is help together by ligaments). There are three main sets of…

Knee X-rays

1.  Know your knee anatomy See the the anatomical landmarks on the diagrams below.   Remember that the knees of younger children will look different, as the patella forms, and the ossification centres form.   2. Look for an effusion There are two fat pads in the knee the suprapatellar fat pad the prefemoral fat…

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