Weaning opioids and steroids

Cite this article as: Anders, M. Weaning opioids and steroids, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2013. Available at: http://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.3890Withdrawal from drugs (principally opioids) prolongs hospital admissions and causes morbidity! Gradual weaning of drug dosing aims to prevent the onset of withdrawal abstinence syndromes: regime one: 10% reduction in original dose per day weaning over 10 days…

Muscle relaxation

Cite this article as: Anders, M. Muscle relaxation, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2013. Available at: http://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.3883Definition: Muscle relaxants block transmission at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) by interfering with nicotinic cholinergic receptors (AChRs). They are large polar molecules with small volumes of distribution that are not orally bioavailable and do not cross the placenta or blood-brain…

Intubation

Cite this article as: Anders, M. Intubation, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2013. Available at: http://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.3880Indication: to secure the airway: severe airway obstruction/inadequate protective reflexes (coma or prolonged seizures) to facilitate ventilation: hypoxaemic and/or hypercarbic respiratory failure Intubation should NOT be attempted by the inexperienced if more skilled personnel are available. Two doctors always present if…

Inotropes and vasopressors

Cite this article as: Anders, M. Inotropes and vasopressors, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2013. Available at: http://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.3876Definition: Inotropes: sympathomimetic agent which act on the sympathetic (or adrenergic) nervous system (β-receptors) resulting in positive inotropic (increase in contractility), chronotropic (increase in heart rate), dromotropic (increase in conduction of impulse) and lusitropic effect (improved diastolic relaxation) Vasopressors: sympathomimetic agent…

Analgesia and sedation

Cite this article as: Anders, M. Analgesia and sedation, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2013. Available at: http://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.3867Intravenous anaesthetic agents (see table): classified as barbiturates (thiopentone) and non-barbiturates (propofol and ketamine) thiopentone use is largely limited to induction in status epilepticus and for treatment of raised ICP; it has no analgesic properties and is in fact…

Basic pharmacology

Uncategorized

Cite this article as: Anders, M. Basic pharmacology, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2013. Available at: http://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.3866Routes of administration and systemic absorption of drugs: Rate of systemic absorption determines onset, intensity and duration of action. Drug solubility and blood flow to the site of absorption are the most important factors: Oral/enteral: most convenient & economic route…