Crystal McLeod is a masters nursing student, in her final year, at the University of Western Ontario, Canada. Her research interests include the health of Indigenous children, and the relation of gestational age at birth to childhood illness. Like a true Canadian, she also loves Tim Hortons and snowshoeing.

Self-reported pain scales


A 6 year old boy is brought to the Emergency Department after a fall from a tree. The boy ambulates into triage, but is holding his arm and grimacing with discomfort. Immediately, you conduct a focused physical exam of his arm and rule out other injuries. It is obvious to you that this patient is…