The 48th Bubble Wrap

Cite this article as:
Currie, V. The 48th Bubble Wrap, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2021. Available at:
https://dontforgetthebubbles.com/the-48th-bubble-wrap/

With millions upon millions of journal articles being published every year it is impossible to keep up.  Every month we ask some of our friends from PERUKI (Paediatric Emergency Research in UK and Ireland) to point out something that has caught their eye.

Article 1: An update on PIMS-TS/MIST-C

Flood J, Shingleton J, Bennett E, Walker B, Amin-Chowdhury Z, Oligbu G, Avis J, Lynn RM, Davis P, Bharucha T, Pain CE. Paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS): Prospective, national surveillance, United Kingdom and Ireland, 2020. The Lancet Regional Health-Europe. 2021 Apr 1;3:100075.

What’s it about? 

During the first breakout of PIMS-TS, Public Health England (PHE) and the British paediatric surveillance unit (BPSU) requested reports of PIMS-TS, Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and Kawasaki Disease (KD) to be submitted for prospective national surveillance. This study looks at patients under the age of 16 who presented with symptoms between 1st March and 15th June 2020. The symptoms for the diagnosis of PIMS-TS was set out as per RCPCH guidance (fever >38, CRP>100, no infection proven and evidence of one at least system dysfunction) along with strict criteria for KD and TSS. From these reports, patients were excluded if they did not meet any PIMS-TS resulting in 268 cases of PIMS-TS meeting diagnostic criteria.

Why does it matter? 

Children have made up a small proportion of direct clinical burden due to COVID-19. However, cases all over the world began to appear of PIMS-TS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and more information was needed to be able to map this disease process and use clinical data to explain clinical characteristics of PIMS-TS and the epidemiology between these overlapping clinical conditions.

The results of the study showed the median age to be 8 years with PIMS TS/KD subgroup younger (5 years) and PIMS TS/TSS older (8 years) than PIMS TS only cases (7years). 60% of the population were male and patients from the BAME community seem to be disproportionately affected, especially within London.

Patients who exhibited PIMS-TS with features of TSS as well seemed to fair worse with a larger number of interventions, longer hospital stay and severity of illness. 35 cases were felt to be clinically in keeping with PIMS-TS despite not meeting the CRP criteria. Parental occupation was reported in just under half of the cases and more than 2 out of 3 were reported as healthcare workers. Just over 1 in 3 of the children had evidence of current or previous SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Clinically Relevant Bottom Line:

Presentations of PIMS-TS are strongly linked with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and those with features similar to toxic shock syndrome tend to be more unwell. Children in London, and in the BAME population, seem to be disproportionately represented, with the most having severe presentations. The epidemiological links are similar to that of other countries.

Reviewed by: Laura Riddick

Article 2: Screening adolescents for the risk of suicide attempts

Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) King CA, Brent D, Grupp-Phelan J, et al., (2021) Prospective Development and Validation of the Computerized Adaptive Screen for Suicidal Youth. JAMA Psychiatry. 2021 Feb 3:e204576

What’s it about? 

A prospective 2-part study with data collection being undertaken at different ED’s in the United States, which are part of the PECARN network. Introduction of computerised adaptive testing (CAT) which put simply is a tool that takes individuals responses to questions and determines their standing on the measured trait e.g., risk of suicide attempt. This offers the possibility of a more individualised, accurate screening tool.

Two studies ran independently:

Study 1(2015-2016): used CAT to develop a screening tool (computerised adaptive screen for suicidal youth CASSY) that targets items to the individuals personal risk profiles to provide a continuous risk score for the likelihood of suicide attempt (SA) within 3 months.

Study 2 (2017-2018): Prospectively validated CASSY.

In Study 1, adolescents aged 12 – 17 years who presented to ED were offered to complete the Ask Suicide Questions (ASQ) and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-CSSR). Depending on these responses the participants were stratified into low medium/ high risk for suicide attempt. Then a random selection of these were assigned to follow up which was done by interviewers who were blinded to the baseline data were responsible for the 3-month telephone follow up which assessed the number of suicide attempts made by the patient during this time.

CASSY was then developed using questions from these screening tools (questions which were identified to have high suicide attempt predictive value) and was cross validated in Study 1, before it’s use in Study 2. Subsequently, adolescents aged 12 – 17 years who presented to ED were offered to complete CASSY.

The authors have used a multivariate logistic regression model to predict suicide attempt during the 3 months follow up. Based on this, the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrates a sensitivity of 82.4% for predicting suicide attempts using the CASSY score, at a specificity of 80% with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87 [95% CI, 0.85-0.89].

For a reminder on these type of stats take a look at this DFTB post.

Some important exclusions in this study population were being a ward of the state (e.g. adolescent in foster care) and non-English speaking participants which from previous studies are shown to be important risk factors for altered mental health.

Why does it matter? 

Data from Australia (and around the world) show that our adolescent population are suffering from increasing levels of mental health issues such as anxiety and depression. With those illnesses often comes suicidal ideation, and when these patients reach crisis point, they present to our emergency departments (ED). One of the biggest challenges to all suicidal risk screening is the accurate identification of young people at risk in a setting that efficiency is required. Existing screening tools such as (ASQ) have shown moderate sensitivity to predicting suicide risk, meaning some individuals at risk were not identified.

Clinically Relevant Bottom Line:

This study shows the CASSY tool has a good sensitivity (ability to pick up) those at risk of suicide attempt. Early and accurate recognition of mental health illnesses and suicidal ideation in primary health care settings and emergency departments is an essential first step in managing these issues.

Reviewed by: Tina Abi Abdallah

Article 3: The use of minimally invasive surfactant therapy

Roberts CT, Halibullah I, Bhatia R, Green EA, Kamlin CO, Davis PG, Manley BJ. Outcomes after Introduction of Minimally Invasive Surfactant Therapy in Two Australian Tertiary Neonatal Units. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2021 Feb 1;229:141-6.

What’s it all about?

This 18-month prospective audit collected data on patient demographics and clinical outcomes following the introduction of minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) in two neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Australia. Infants were eligible for MIST if they received CPAP support with clinical or radiological diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and were excluded if they had major congenital anomalies, circulatory compromise, recent apnoeas or a diagnosis other than RDS.

Why does it matter?

MIST is a less invasive method of administering exogenous surfactant for the treatment of RDS in premature infants compared to previous surfactant administration by endotracheal tube. Previous meta analysis highlighted that MIST is associated with reduced need for mechanical ventilation, and adverse events such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and death compared to endotracheal intubation. However, it is difficult to make clear conclusions about the efficacy of MIST versus endotracheal tubing for surfactant administration, as a range of other factors can affect success rate. These include gestational age, surfactant dose and timing of procedure (as prophylactic after birth versus an early rescue approach within the first 24 hours of life. As MIST and endotracheal intubation require laryngoscopy, the authors stress the continued need to adequately train junior staff and suggest the use of routine video laryngoscopy regularly to allow for second operator confirmation and potentially increased rates of success.

135 MIST procedures were performed. The median gestation was 30 weeks, and median birth weight being 1439 grams. All infants received supplementary oxygen before MIST. The most common adverse event was peripheral oxygen desaturation to <80% which occurred in 3 out of 4 of MIST procedures. Other events included bradycardia <100 beats per minute (13 out of 100) and the need for positive pressure ventilation (1 in 10). Positively, over 2/3rds of infants treated with MIST did not require further intubation and mechanical ventilation and senior clinicians had higher rates of procedural success. Surfactant administration was successful in all but one MIST procedure due to patient apnoea requiring intubation.

The Bottom Line:

The authors determined that MIST can be successfully adopted into clinical practice in such settings where staff have limited prior experience. Rates of adverse events, mentioned above, were comparable to results from previous randomized trials. Over 2/3rd of infants in this study with MIST did not require further intubation and ventilation. 

Reviewed by: Ivy Jiang

Article 4: Can we perform phototherapy at home?

Pettersson M, Eriksson M, Albinsson E, Ohlin A. Home phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia in term neonates—an unblinded multicentre randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 19:1-8.

What’s it about?

Within the first week of life, 60% of term babies and 80% of pre-term babies will have some degree of jaundice. This study looked at well term babies and if delivering phototherapy at home, with daily hospital reviews, would be an acceptable alternative to inpatient phototherapy.

This was an unblinded, randomised control trial of 147 jaundiced neonates across 6 hospitals in Sweden. To be included babies had to be well, >48 hours old, have a gestational age >36+0 and have a raised serum bilirubin (SBR). Parents also had to be capable to perform phototherapy at home and agree to return daily for review and blood tests. Babies were excluded if they had a high bilirubin result (>400µumol/L), weight loss of >10% of birth weight, any ongoing infection or illness, or if there was blood group incompatibility.

Babies were randomly selected to receive home phototherapy (78) vs hospital phototherapy (69). Babies in both groups were reviewed daily in the hospital, and a daily SBR and weight. Home treatment was done by Bilisoft (Bilibed) that was provided with eye protection and clear instructions. This study could not find any statistically significant differences that suggested that either therapy was superior to the other. Only 3 in 78 babies of the home phototherapy neonate were converted to hospital treatment. No one across either group had SBR’s high enough to require IVIG or blood exchange. There was no statistically significant difference regarding the duration of phototherapy, time until discharge, amount of blood tests, weight loss or adverse events.

Why does it matter?

Jaundice is one of the most common reasons for prolonged postnatal hospitalisation and readmissions in the postnatal period. Hospital management of jaundice can negatively impact bonding and attachment, it can be inconvenient for families and is associated with a significant cost to the healthcare system.

The bottom line

This study shows that with daily reviews and monitoring, home phototherapy could be an effective and safe alternative to hospital phototherapy for otherwise healthy, term, neonates. When determining appropriateness for home phototherapy bilirubin levels, geographic location and ability to commute, parental anxiety and the capability of parents/carers must all be considered.

Reviewed by: Phoebe Campbell

Article 5: How is procedural sedation performed in Europe?

Sahyoun C, Cantais A, Gervaix A, Bressan S, Löllgen R, Krauss B. Pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department: surveying the current European practice. European journal of pediatrics. 2021 Jan 28:1-5.

What’s it about?

 

This cross-sectional study of european paediatric procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) was endorsed by the Research in European Paediatric Emergency Medicine (REPEM) network, with data collection between November 2019 and March 2020. 

The study aimed to describe PSA practice across europe, perform a needs assessment-like analysis and also identify barriers to PSA implementation.

Online questionnaires were distributed to a target number of either 10 or 5 emergency departments within each country (depending on their population size), via country specific lead research coordinators. The survey included a clinical case scenario with subsequent questions covering 8 key themes. These ranged from the management of a patient requiring PSA, protocols and safety and barriers limiting PSA implementation. The questionnaire was revised several times following input from each country lead, accounting for variations in relevance, language, and grammar between each country, until a consensus was achieved containing 30 questions. Questionnaires were completed by a senior clinician at each site with 171 hospitals contributing data from 19 countries. The UK and Ireland were not included due to a similar project running in these locations simultaneously.

Midazolam (100%) and Ketamine (91%) were the most available PSA medications, followed by propofol (67%), nitrous oxide (56%) and intranasal fentanyl (47%). 8 in 10 of sites reported sedation being performed by general paediatricians. However just over 1 in 3 of sites stated all staff performing PSA were paediatric advanced life support certified and only 1 in 2 required PSA specific course completion. Safety and monitoring guidelines for PSA were present in most  sites (7out of 10) and 1 in 2 had pre-procedural checklists in place, with these sites most likely to perform IV sedation. Capnography was present in just under half of the sites.

Barriers to PSA implementations included lack of physical space (1 in 2 of sites) and shortages of both nurses and clinicians (both more than 2/3rds of sites). Interestingly half of the sites reported nurse-led triage protocols in use for paracetamol and ibuprofen administration, with these sites experiencing the highest number of patient visits per year.

Why does it matter?

PSA is used widely across europe, however there is a large variation in the standard medications and safety measures in use.

Clinically Relevant Bottom Line:

 This study highlights the need for sharing of best-practice amongst sites with the potential for future trials to determine optimal staff training, medication use, procedural checklists and guidelines, nurse-led triage and staff and physical space allocation for PSA. The network generated as a consequence of this study could be used to facilitate such work in the future.

Reviewed by: Joshua Tulley

If we have missed out on something useful or you think other articles are absolutely worth sharing, please add them in the comments!

That’s it for this month. Many thanks to all of our reviewers who have taken the time to scour the literature so you don’t have to.

All articles reviewed and edited by Vicki Currie

The 47th Bubble Wrap

Cite this article as:
Currie, V. The 47th Bubble Wrap, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2021. Available at:
https://dontforgetthebubbles.com/the-47th-bubble-wrap/

With millions upon millions of journal articles being published every year it is impossible to keep up.  Every month we ask some of our friends from PERUKI (Paediatric Emergency Research in UK and Ireland) to point out something that has caught their eye.

Article 1: The safety profile of ceftriaxone

Zeng, L., Wang, C., et al., (2020) Safety of ceftriaxone in paediatrics: a systematic review. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Oct;105(10):981-985. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-317950

What’s it about? 

Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for children. It is a broad spectrum third generation cephalosporin, used as a first line empirical agent for meningitis, sepsis and useful against many bacterial infections. It has an elimination half-life of 8 hours and can be given once every 24 hours IV or IM, giving us options when that cannula is particularly tricky! Whilst it is well known that using ceftriaxone in the newborn is contraindicated due to biliary sludging, the authors of this paper delved into the literature to identify other adverse reactions (ADRs) to ceftriaxone.

What did they do?

The authors performed systematic searches across several databases looking for studies to evaluate the type of ADR, the incidence of ADRs in patients aged 0 – 18 years old and to identify any potential risk factors for serious ADRs. A total of 112 studies were identified (22 RCTs, 61 case reports, 19 prospective studies, 7 retrospective studies, 2 case series and 1 case control study) which reported on ADRs of ceftriaxone use (although it was not a primary outcome measurement in any of the studies).

Looking at the RCTs, prospective and retrospective studies, gastrointestinal side effects were the most common ADR (specifically, diarrhoea). The second most common ADR identified amongst these studies was hepatobiliary (biliary sludging and cholelithiasis). These ADRs were all transient, and usually self-resolved after cessation of ceftriaxone. The case reports and case studies identified the more serious ADR of immune haemolytic anaemia, which carries a risk of death, especially for patients with an underlying diagnosis of sickle cell disease.

Clinically Relevant Bottom Line:

Transient gastrointestinal side effects are generally tolerable, and we should closely monitor patients for evolving symptoms of gallstones. Most importantly, we should be mindful and cautious when prescribing ceftriaxone in patients with underlying haematological conditions such as sickle cell anaemia, due to the uncommon but significant risk of immune haemolytic anaemia. Ceftriaxone is really a great antibiotic, and as long as we remember the clinical spectrum of ADRs, we will not cause significant patient harm.

Reviewed by: Tina Abi Abdallah

Article 2: Kawasaki Disease vs Septic Shock: Early Differentiating Features Despite Overlapping Clinical Profiles

Power A, Runeckles K, Manlhiot C, Dragulescu A, Guerguerian AM, McCrindle BW. Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome Versus Septic Shock: Early Differentiating Features Despite Overlapping Clinical Profiles. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 5:S0022-3476(20)31482-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.12.002. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33290811.

What’s it about? 

According to literature around 6-7% *of patients with Kawasaki disease present with shock and this can provide a challenge in differentiating Kawasaki disease from septic shock. This paper looks to compare clinical features, resuscitative measures and haemodynamic response to treatment between those presenting with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome and children with septic shock.

*Kanegaye JT, Wilder MS, Molkara D, Frazer JR, Pancheri J, Tremoulet AH, et al. Recognition of a Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome. Pediatrics 2009;123:e783-9.

What did they do?

This was a retrospective chart review of patients under the age of 18 over a 10-year period admitted to a tertiary centre in the USA. The charts of children who met the criteria for Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (as defined by the American Heart Association) were analysed and children meeting the criteria for septic shock were used as controls. Over the 10-year period >1000 children were admitted to the centre with Kawasaki disease. Of these 9 met the criteria for Kawasaki disease shock syndrome. They were case matched with 18 controls who were admitted with septic shock.

The study found that children with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome were less likely (1 in 9) to have an underlying significant medical illness than the septic shock group (11 in 18). All the patients in the Kawasaki group had at least one of the five classic features of Kawasaki disease at presentation (rash, conjunctivitis, mucous membrane changes, cervical lymphadenopathy and extremity changes). With rash found in 7 of 9 of the patients either at presentation or during the admission. 5 in 9 of the Kawasaki disease cohort had cardiac involvement with zero of the control group with any cardiac involvement.

The length of stay for children in the Kawasaki disease shock syndrome group was a median of 9 days vs 28 days in the septic shock group, with no difference found in ICU length of stay. Biochemical markers were compared, and this study found a lower platelet count (median 140 vs 258) in the Kawasaki group. Interestingly in children with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome the duration of illness prior to admission was much longer (9 days vs 3 days) than the control group.

There have been no studies that directly compare children with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome and septic shock, so this acts as a starting point. However, it is a very small cohort (only 9 patients out of >1000 presentations of Kawasaki disease with Kawasaki shock syndrome); perhaps a multi- centre trial within a network could be done to increase the numbers.

Clinically Relevant Bottom Line:

This study has found that when compared to children with septic shock children with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome are more likely to have a lower platelet count on admission, a longer duration of illness prior to admission, cardiac involvement if an echo is performed and have a longer stay in hospital. All the patients in this study had at least one of the classic features of Kawasaki disease with rash being the most common here. As clinicians who review these children at the front door perhaps a child with a rash and low platelets fever >5 days will continue to make us think about Kawasaki disease.

Reviewed by: Vicki Currie

Article 3: Is it necessary to evaluate urinary tract infection in children with lower respiratory tract infection?

Kim JM, Koo JW, Kim H-B. Is it necessary to evaluate urinary tract infection in children with lower respiratory tract infection? Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2020 Dec;56(12):1924-1928

What’s it all about?

Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common childhood infections that previous literature has reported to have a concomitance rate of 3 to 10 per 100 children. While LRTIs are often self-limiting viral infections, UTIs are often caused by a bacterial source that can have long term implications if not adequately treated.

What did they do?

This was a retrospective review of 1574 patients’ medical records under 36 months of age who were hospitalised for a LRTI over a 2 year period in a South Korean hospital. 278 of patients had a fever and underwent a subsequent urine evaluation performed either by catheterisation (<24mo) or voided urine (24-36mo).

Patients with a congenital airway or kidney disease, absence of fever at presentation or whose parents refused or failed to undergo a urinalysis were excluded from the analysis.

The overall prevalence rate of a concomitant UTI with LRTI in this population was 1 in 10 in children <36mo and 13 in 100 in children <24mo. Mean age was significantly younger in the UTI group 7 months vs 12 months in the non UTI group. There was a greater prevalence rate of UTIs in boys (n=23) compared to girls (n=7). The most common organism cultured in the UTI group was Escherichia coli which were all treated with a third-generation cephalosporin. The positive rate of virus detection was 93.3% in the UTI group, and 89.9% in the non-UTI group. Most frequently detected co-infections were adenovirus, rhinovirus, and RSV.

The Bottom Line:

LRTIs and UTIs are common childhood infections that have up to a 1 in 10 concomitance rate.  A child presenting with a LRTI and concomitant UTI may present to ED with early respiratory and non-specific symptoms of a UTI (fever, lethargy and irritability), which may lead clinicians to presume a respiratory source of infection and not perform or delay a urinalysis. Hence a diagnosis of an underlying UTI may be missed. Failure to diagnose and promptly treat an underlying UTI can lead to renal morbidity including renal scars, hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Considering the ease of diagnosing and treating a UTI, this study further reiterates the importance of excluding a UTI in children with LRTIs under 36 months of age, especially of male gender. However, given the nature of this single centre study in South Korea, these findings cannot be generalised to a global population and must be taken in context to the population you encounter in clinical practice.

Reviewed by: Emma Chan

Article 4: Why don’t kids get sick with COVID-19?

Zimmermann P, Curtis N., Why is COVID-19 less severe in children? A review of the proposed mechanisms underlying the age-related difference in severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections Arch Dis Child 2020;0 1-11

What’s it about?

A review article analyzing the possible mechanisms for reduced severity of COVID-19 in paediatric patients. The debate about if children have a lower rate of COVID-19 infection continues but it is known that children are less severely affected (in contrast to other respiratory viruses). This appears to be true even in paediatric patients with immune suppression or preexisting conditions e.g. IDDM. What we don’t know is why. The authors look at the evidence for multiple hypotheses but the two they favor are:

1)     Age related endothelial damage and increased coagulability. This fits the clinical profile of COVID-19 which features endotheliitis, micro thrombi, thrombotic complications and vasculitic skin manifestations. It could also explain COVID-19 being more severe in conditions which damage the endothelium e.g. hypertension and diabetes.

2)     Age related changes to the immune system. There is a decline in innate and adaptive immunity in the elderly compared with children who have not gone through this decline. The chronic proinflammatory state (which predisposes to the cytokine storm seen in severe COVID-19) increases with age. Additionally the authors hypothesize that the effect of chronic CMV infection on T-cells may explain the worsening of COVID-19 with age.

The authors concluded that these were the only two hypotheses which fit with the age-gradient in COVID-19 with mortality and morbidity rising steeply after 60-70.

The bottom line

If we could figure the ‘magic formula’ protecting children against severe COVID-19 we could use this to target treatment in adults. However, this paper is very much exploring theories and cannot yet be extended to clinical treatments.

The interplay between a lack of endothelial damage, lack of propensity to hyper-coagulation and their not yet declined immune system are most likely to protect children from severe COVID-19 infection.

Reviewed by: Sarah Reynolds

Article 5: A Gut Feeling: Abdominal Symptoms as an Initial Presentation of EVALI

Christel Wekon-Kemeni, MD, Prathipa Santhanam, MD, Pallav Halani, MD, Lauren Bradford, MD, Ceila E. Loughlin, MD.A Gut Feeling: Abdominal Symptoms as an initial presentation of EVALI, Paediatrics Volume 147, number 1, January 2021.

What’s it about?

 

Vaping or electronic cigarette use associated lung injury (EVALI) is a syndrome resulting from electronic cigarette use which causes predominantly respiratory symptoms, such as shortness of breath.

This case report describes an American 13-year-old male presenting, on two occasions primarily with abdominal symptoms of pain, nausea and vomiting. Initially, he was managed as a case of gastroenteritis, and had been noted to have borderline saturations. Initial abdominal CT report described bilateral lung pathology (lower lobe consolidation and atelectasis) in addition to mild jejunal loop thickening. However, after a second admission with similar symptoms plus raised inflammatory markers and fever, further workup was commenced. 

Repeat abdominal CT excluded appendicitis and evidence of inflammatory bowel disease. CXR revealed bilateral changes and a Thoracic CT identified multifocal ground-glass changes and infiltrates bilaterally with scattered septal thickening and dependent bibasal opacities.

Following a review of the patient by the respiratory team, a year long history of e -cigarette use preceding this patient’s symptoms was discovered, identifying EVALI as the potential diagnosis.

The patient was started on intravenous methylprednisolone which, following an improvement in all symptoms, was converted to a  course of oral corticosteroids. Repeat thoracic CT one month following discharge showed almost complete resolution of the initial changes. 

Why does it matter?

EVALI is a relatively new syndrome, mostly documented in North America, with the potential to increase in prevalence as we see the popularity of e-cigarette use continuing to rise.

Given this patient’s initial symptoms of nausea and vomiting, detailed smoking history to include e-cigarette use may not have been taken. Thus, a workup for abdominal pathology was justifiably completed. However, considering published case reports of EVALI describing nausea and vomiting as common symptoms, this diagnosis should still be considered in patients presenting without respiratory involvement initially. The data available describing EVALI in the paediatric population is sparse, nevertheless in adult’s progression to respiratory failure requiring invasive ventilatory support is reported.

Clinically Relevant Bottom Line:

 Although challenging, obtaining an accurate smoking history to include e-cigarette use in young people is important for the consideration of EVALI as a diagnosis. We still don’t completely understand the pathophysiology of e-cigarettes, or how much damage they are causing to the young people we see who smoke them, but remembering to ask about this as part of your history is a step we can take to improve knowledge and understanding.

Reviewed by: Joshua Tulley

If we have missed out on something useful or you think other articles are absolutely worth sharing, please add them in the comments!

That’s it for this month. Many thanks to all of our reviewers who have taken the time to scour the literature so you don’t have to.

Bubble Wrap PLUS – February

Cite this article as:
Anke Raaijmakers. Bubble Wrap PLUS – February, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2021. Available at:
https://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.32178

Can’t get enough of Bubble Wrap? The Bubble Wrap Plus is a monthly paediatric journal club reading list  from Anke Raaijmakers working with Professor Jaan Toelen & his team of the University Hospitals in Leuven. This comprehensive list is developed from 34 journals, including major and subspecialty paediatric journals. We suggest this list can help you discover relevant or interesting articles for your local journal club or simply help you to keep an finger on the pulse of paediatric research.

This month’s list features answers to intriguing questions such as: ‘How well do we perform paediatric procedural sedation and analgesia in A&E?’, ‘Is home phototherapy feasible for term neonates?’, ‘What are the vestibular disorders in congenital CMV infection?’, ‘Are lower HbA1c targets associated with better metabolic control?’ and ‘Why parents don’t refuse Covid-19 vaccination?’.

You will find the list is broken down into four sections:

REVIEWS AND OPINION ARTICLES

Global Ethical Considerations regarding Mandatory Vaccination in Children.

Savulescu J, et al. J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 20:S0022-3476(21)00028-7. 

The Ethics of Predicting Autism Spectrum Disorder in Infancy.

MacDuffie KE, et al. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2021 Jan 19:S0890-8567(21)00018-6

Contemporary Management of Urinary Tract Infection in Children.

Mattoo TK, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 21:e2020012138. 

Overview of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in children.

Ford TJ, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2021 Jan;57(1):15-18. 

Paediatric chemical burns: a clinical review.

Nguyen ATM, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 6

Should children be vaccinated against COVID-19 now?

Wong BLH, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2021 Jan 5:archdischild-2020-321225. 

Identification and Management of Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents.

Hornberger LL, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan;147(1):e2020040279

ORIGINAL CLINICAL STUDIES

Maternal Education and Academic Achievement in Schoolchildren: The Role of Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

Reina-Gutiérrez S, et al. J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 27:S0022-3476(21)00081-0

Early Versus Late Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy Treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia.

O’Kane A, et al. J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 27:S0022-3476(21)00084-6

Pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department: surveying the current European practice.

Sahyoun C, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 28. 

Early Motor Function of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

Lim YH, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 28:e2020011270

Discharge Age and Weight for Very Preterm Infants: 2005-2018.

Edwards EM, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 28:e2020016006

Evaluation of COVID-19 Vaccine Refusal in Parents.

Yigit M, et al..Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2021 Jan 4;

Migraine and Tension-Type Headache Among Children and Adolescents: Application of International Headache Society Criteria in a Clinical Setting.

Genizi J, et al..J Child Neurol. 2021 Jan 28:883073820988417

Surgery as a Viable Option in Neutropenic Appendicitis.

Williams K, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 27:e2020035279. 

Appendectomy Versus Observation for Appendicitis in Neutropenic Children With Cancer.

Many BT, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 27:e2020027797

No change in neurodevelopment at 11 years after extremely preterm birth.

Marlow N, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2021 Jan 27:fetalneonatal-2020-320650. 

Viral co-infections among SARS-CoV-2-infected children and infected adult household contacts.

Pigny F, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 27:1-5. 

A matter of taste: Results of antibiotic suspension tasting among paediatric doctors.

Abbotsford J, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2021 Jan;57(1):161-162. 

Effect of a Family Media Use Plan on Media Rule Engagement Among Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Moreno MA, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Jan 25. 

Predictors and outcomes of extubation failure in extremely preterm infants.

Kidman AM, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2021 Jan 23. 

The perfusion index histograms predict patent ductus arteriosus requiring treatment in preterm infants.

Osman AA, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 24. 

Diagnostic Accuracy of the Panbio SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test Compared with Rt-Pcr Testing of Nasopharyngeal Samples in the Pediatric Population.

Villaverde S, et al. J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 20:S0022-3476(21)00034-2

Gestational age at birth and child special educational needs: a UK representative birth cohort study.

Alterman N, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2021 Jan 22:archdischild-2020-320213. 

Body composition monitoring in children and adolescents: reproducibility and reference values.

Van Eyck A, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 22

Comparison of Manual and Automated Sepsis Screening Tools in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

Eisenberg M, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 20:e2020022590. 

Home phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia in term neonates-an unblinded multicentre randomized controlled trial.

Pettersson M, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 19

Romantic Relationships in Transgender Adolescents: A Qualitative Study.

Araya AC, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 19:e2020007906. 

Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of food allergy in young Japanese children.

Tanaka K, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2021 Jan 19. 

More Evidence Linking Autoimmune Diseases to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Dalsgaard S. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Jan 19:e205502

Association of Maternal Autoimmune Disease With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

Nielsen TC, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Jan 19:e205487

Do children with solitary or hypofunctioning kidney have the same prevalence for masked hypertension?

Yel S, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2021 Jan 18

Association of Bacteremia with Vaccination Status in Children Aged 2 to 36 Months.

Dunnick J, et al. J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 13:S0022-3476(21)00009-3

CONservative TReatment of Appendicitis in Children: a randomised controlled feasibility Trial (CONTRACT).

Hall NJ, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2021 Jan 13:archdischild-2020-320746

Use of E-cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products and Progression to Daily Cigarette Smoking.

Pierce JP, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 11:e2020025122. 

Oropharyngeal Carriage of Kingella kingae and Transient Synovitis of the Hip in Young Children: A Case-Control Study.

Gravel J, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2021 Jan 7;Publish Ahead of Print

Caesarean delivery is associated with an absolute increase in the prevalence of overweight in the offspring: The SENDO project.

Moreno-Galarraga L, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2021 Jan 11. doi: 10.1111/jpc.15328. 

Vestibular, Gaze, and Balance Disorders in Asymptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

Pinninti S, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 8:e20193945

Vestibular Disorders in Congenital Cytomegalovirus: A Balancing Act.

Demmler-Harrison GJ. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 8:e2020043778. 

What is the risk of missing orbital cellulitis in children?

Ibrahim LF, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2021 Jan 8:archdischild-2020-320590. 

Rectal Biopsy Technique for the Diagnosis of Hirschsprung Disease in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Comes GT, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2021 Jan 6;Publish Ahead of Print

Lower HbA1c targets are associated with better metabolic control.

Van Loocke M, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 7

The impact of COVID-19 on a tertiary care pediatric emergency department.

Liguoro I, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 7:1-8. 

Mental Health Disorders in Children With Congenital Heart Disease.

Gonzalez VJ, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 4:e20201693

Translation of a Host Blood RNA Signature Distinguishing Bacterial From Viral Infection Into a Platform Suitable for Development as a Point-of-Care Test.

Pennisi I, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Jan 4:e205227

Neutropenia in Children Treated With Ketogenic Diet Therapy.

Munro K, et al. J Child Neurol. 2021 Jan 4:883073820984067

From rigid to flexible bronchoscopy: a tertiary center experience in removal of inhaled foreign bodies in children.

Golan-Tripto I, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 3

‘Lip-to-Tip’ study: comparison of three methods to determine optimal insertion length of endotracheal tube in neonates.

Priyadarshi M, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 3. 

Improving Toddlers’ Healthy Eating Habits and Self-regulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Nix RL, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan;147(1):e20193326

Association of Cesarean Delivery with Childhood Hospitalization for Infections Before 13 Years of Age.

Auger N, et al. J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 6:S0022-3476(20)31546-8. 

Early Physical Abuse and Adult Outcomes.

Lansford JE, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan;147(1):e20200873

Child Maltreatment and Mortality in Young Adults.

Segal L, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan;147(1):e2020023416. 

Risk of Electrolyte Disorders in Acutely Ill Children Receiving Commercially Available Plasmalike Isotonic Fluids: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Lehtiranta S, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Jan 1;175(1):28-35

Vaginal Transmission of Cancer from Mothers with Cervical Cancer to Infants.

Arakawa A, et al. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jan 7;384(1):42-50

Stillbirths During the COVID-19 Pandemic in England, April-June 2020.

Stowe J, et al. JAMA. 2021 Jan 5;325(1):86-87

Changes in Preterm Birth Phenotypes and Stillbirth at 2 Philadelphia Hospitals During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic, March-June 2020.

Handley SC, et al. JAMA. 2021 Jan 5;325(1):87-89

GUIDELINES AND BEST EVIDENCE

The use of diagnostic tools for pediatric AKI: applying the current evidence to the bedside.

Fuhrman D. Pediatr Nephrol. 2021 Jan 25. 

Is ultrasonography mandatory in all children at their first febrile urinary tract infection?

Pennesi M, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2021 Jan 22. 

Morphine or hydromorphone: which should be preferred? A systematic review.

Spénard S, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2021 Jan 18:archdischild-2020-319059. 

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an overview of current evidence and activities in the UK.

Schölin L, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2021 Jan 13:archdischild-2020-320435. 

Systematic review with meta-analysis: Probiotics for treating acute diarrhoea in children with dehydration.

Wu HL, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2021 Jan 7

Machine Learning for Child and Adolescent Health: A Systematic Review.

Hoodbhoy Z, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan;147(1):e2020011833. 

CASE REPORTS

When Pneumonia Is Not Resolved with Antibiotics: The Incomplete Border Sign.

Pérez-Torres Lobato MR, et al. J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 22:S0022-3476(21)00076-7

Isolated forehead swelling.

Nistico D, et al. J Pediatr. 2021 Jan 11:S0022-3476(21)00004-4

Case 2-2021: A 26-Year-Old Pregnant Woman with Ventricular Tachycardia and Shock.

Scott NS, et al. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jan 21;384(3):272-282. 

Why the Maternal Medication List Matters: Neonatal Toxicity From Combined Serotonergic Exposures.

Brajcich MR, et al. Pediatrics. 2021 Jan 27:e20192250. 

If we have missed out on something useful or you think other articles are absolutely worth sharing, please add them in the comments!

The 46th Bubble Wrap

Cite this article as:
Currie, V. The 46th Bubble Wrap, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2021. Available at:
https://dontforgetthebubbles.com/the-46th-bubble-wrap/

With millions upon millions of journal articles being published every year it is impossible to keep up.  Every month we ask some of our friends from PERUKI (Paediatric Emergency Research in UK and Ireland) to point out something that has caught their eye.

Article 1: Ten Tips for Breaking Bad News

Brouwer, M.A., Maeckelberghe, E.L.M., van der Heide, A., et al., Breaking bad news: what parents would like you to know (2020) Archives of Disease in Childhood Published Online First: 30 October 2020. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-318398

What’s it about? 

Difficult conversations in paediatrics often revolve around conditions which reduce life expectancy, such as oncological, metabolic, cardiac and neurological diagnoses. In the case of new diagnoses, difficult discussions may happen in the emergency department – an environment that is not designed for sensitive and long (ideally interruption free) discussions. 

This article reviews the experiences of parents who were involved in difficult conversations surrounding their child’s care or condition and provides practical advice on how to provide empathic, timely and optimal communication.

Based in the Netherlands, the authors recruited bereaved and non-bereaved parents of children aged between 1 and 12 years with life threatening conditions. Between November 2016 and October 2018, face to face interviews with the parents were conducted and transcribed verbatim.

Using transcripts, key themes and ten clear barriers to the communication of bad news were identified. The authors then reviewed the transcripts at length to identify positive feedback when breaking bad news; with the key aspects being where and when conversations took place, who was present for the conversation, and the honesty and information that was given.

Why does it matter? 

Breaking bad news or caring conversations are part of our every day work. But for the families and children receiving the information, the high emotional and practical significance means that they remember these conversations for a long, long time. The onus on us as professionals is to develop and grow the insight and skill to thoughtfully, effectively and compassionately communicate during these conversations.

Clinically Relevant Bottom Line:

Communication skills remain the cornerstone of medical practice. Feedback from patients and family often revolves around communication with the team caring for them, and whether it was “good” or “bad”. This article highlights some important factors to optimise communication when breaking bad news, which can be (and should be) utilised on a daily basis.

Reviewed by: Tina Abi Abdallah

Article 2: Risk of traumatic intracranial haemorrhage in children with bleeding disorders

Bressan, S., Monagle, P., Dalziel, S.R., Borland, M.L., Phillips, N., Kochar, A., Lyttle, M.D., Cheek, J.A., Neutze, J., Oakley, E., Dalton, S., Gilhotra, Y., Hearps, S., Furyk, J., Babl, F.E. (2020). Risk of traumatic intracranial haemorrhage in children with bleeding disorders. J Paediatr Child Health, 56: 1891-1897.

What’s it about? 

This multi-centre prospective observational study aimed to assess the rate of  CT use and frequency of diagnosing intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) on CT, in children with bleeding disorders presenting with head trauma.

20 137 children were evaluated in Australian and New Zealand EDs for head trauma, with or without bleeding disorders between April 2011 and November 2014. Congenital or acquired bleeding disorders were present in 0.5% of this population. Head CT use was significantly higher in children with bleeding disorders than those without (3 in 10 vs 1 in 10) despite the latter group presenting more frequently with severe mechanisms of head injury. Children with bleeding disorders who received CT were more likely to present with milder mechanisms of injury as well as clinical signs of vomiting and abnormal behaviour reported by parents, compared to children with bleeding disorders who did not receive CT scans . Only one child with a bleeding disorder had an ICH requiring neurosurgical intervention and no children without CT imaging had evidence of ICH on follow-up.

Why does it matter? 

Minor head injuries present frequently to paediatric EDs. Children with bleeding disorders are at increased risk of ICH following a minor head injury than those without bleeding disorders. Patients with severe haemophilia are reported to have the highest risk of traumatic ICH within this heterogenous disease group. It is important to detect ICH early in order to avoid long term disability and potentially fatal outcomes whilst balancing the decision for imaging against the risks of repeated radiation exposure. Previous clinical decision rules have supported ED clinicians in making judgements on CT use for paediatric head injuries but there is little evidence or guidance on its use for children with bleeding disorders.

Clinically Relevant Bottom Line:

The low incidence of ICH in children with bleeding disorders receiving CT imaging suggests that CT scans may not be routinely necessary in children with congenital or acquired bleeding disorder. The authors suggest a more selective approach to CT decision-making, combining a period of clinical observation with the severity of injury mechanism and the underlying bleeding disorder, rather than a “CT all” strategy.

However, the study is limited in its analysis by the low number of children with bleeding disorders. It would also be interesting to note from Bressan et al.’s study whether the rate of CT use varied with patients’ GCS scores or age of presentation, given the wide age window of children < 18 years.

 Nonetheless, current head injury rules such as PECARN were designed with the explicit exclusion of children with bleeding disorders. This study can therefore support the development of targeted neuroimaging guidelines for children with bleeding disorders.

Reviewed by: Ivy Jiang

Article 3: Can we safely send paediatric head injuries home from triage?

Aldridge, P., Castle, H., Phillips, C., Russell, E., Guerrero-Luduena, R., Rout, R. (2020). Head home: a prospective cohort study of a nurse-led paediatric head injury clinical decision tool at a district general hospital. Emergency Medicine Journal.

What’s it all about?

Head injuries are a common presentation to emergency departments internationally. Recent Australian data has shown that in >19,000 attendances with head injury only 3 in 100 had a traumatic brain injury on CT or a clinically important brain injury.

This study group set out to assess whether children under 17 years could safely be discharged by triage nurses following a pre-set clinical decision tool (HIDATq- Head Injury Discharge At Triage questionnaire). HIDATq was developed using PECARN and NICE guidelines. For a recap on Head Injury Decision tools see Anna Ing’s ‘Head Injury- who to scan?’ on DFTB.  HIDATq was implemented over a 6-month period in children who presented with a head or facial injury to a DGH in the UK.

Over 1700 patients were assessed, and data was analysed retrospectively. 61% were HIDATq negative and 1 in 5 of these patients were felt to be safe for discharge from triage without further investigation or management. A further 3 out of 10 children in the HIDATq negative patients were found to be eligible for discharge following minor wound management. 4 % of patients underwent CT scans (only 1 patient from the HIDATq negative group).

Why does it matter?

Head injuries are a common presentation to the paediatric ED. This study has revealed a patient group who might be eligible, using this screening tool, for a safe discharge from triage that would potentially have a large impact on ED crowding and pressures.

Clinically Relevant Bottom Line:

There were no adverse outcomes and the clinical decision tool used produced a high sensitivity and specificity for determining the need for CT after head injury. More than half of the children who had a negative HIDATq were potentially suitable for a safe discharge from triage.

This study did however have a highly selective population- it was not a major trauma centre so by default likely to have had less severe presentations of head injury. A larger multi centre trial is needed to provide validation for the tool. However, this study provides a useful starting point and identifies possible ways to improve patient management and ED departmental pressures.

Reviewed by: Brent Stevenson

Article 4: Should POC blood ketones be used as a triage tool to assess dehydration and predict likely admission?

Durnin, S., Jones, J., Ryan, E., Howard, R., Walsh, S., Dawkins, I., Blackburn, C., O’Donnell, S.M. and Barrett, M.J., 2020. The utility of ketones at triage: a prospective cohort study. Archives of Disease in Childhood105(12), pp.1157-1161.

What’s it about?

This is a small non-blinded prospective cohort study looking at 198 patients aged 1m-5yrs over a 12-month period. The eligibility criteria were presentation with vomiting/diarrhea/decreased fluid intake or clinical concerns of possible hypoglycaemia. Patients had finger prick blood ketones measured at triage, along with a Gorelick 4-point dehydration score. Repeat ketone measurement at 4hrs later or at discharge, clinical assessment and a 10-point Gorelick dehydration score (a Gorelick score is a validated tool to predict significant dehydration for children aged 1 month to 5 years).

The authors found a weak correlation between POC ketone level and the 10-point Gorelick dehydration scale (a more detailed assessment) and no correlation between POC ketones and Gorelick 4-point dehydration scale score.

Ketone level at triage was not predictive of admission however repeat measurement at 4hrs was weakly predictive; meaning, a larger proportion of the discharged cohort showed a reduction in ketones after rehydration compared to the admitted cohort.

Why does it matter?

Assessing dehydration is an inexact science and an accurate POC test for dehydration would simplify and potentially improve patient care. The Gorelick 4-point scale has previously shown to be oversensitive for assessing percentage dehydration but scales are better than unstructured assessment. This study rules out blood ketones as a tool for assessment of degree of dehydration or for predicting admission in this patient group.

The bottom line

Blood ketones are of little use as a triage tool for assessing degree of dehydration or predicting hospital admission in children with reduced fluid intake / D&V. There is no benefit to routine measurement of blood ketones at triage in patients with dehydration who do not have concerns about potential DKA.

Reviewed by: Sarah Reynolds

Article 5: Is loop-mediated isothermal amplification a useful tool for early identification of invasive meningococcal disease?

Waterfield, T., Lyttle, M.D., McKenna, J., Maney, J.A., Roland, D., Corr, M., Woolfall, K., Patenall, B., Shields, M. and Fairley, D., 2020. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the early diagnosis of invasive meningococcal disease in children. Archives of Disease in Childhood105(12), pp.1151-1156.

What’s it about?

A point of care test: Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a potential test for early identification of invasive meningococcal disease (MD).  (LAMP) is a form of rapid nucleic acid amplification and a commercially available LAMP test (using oropharyngeal swabs) can test for all serotypes of Neisseria meningitidis. This study looked to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of LAMP for identifying invasive (MD) in children and to compare LAMP testing with more familiar tests like CRP and white cell counts (WCC).

 263 children under the age 18 with fever and signs or symptoms of meningococcal septicaemia were included over a 2-year period in 3 ED’s across the UK. 97% of participants were appropriately vaccinated as per UK vaccination schedule with over 1 in 2 of these children having had the Men B vaccination and over 2 in 3 children who had received the Men C vaccine.

Less than 2 per 100 children had confirmed cases of invasive MD. There were 14 positive LAMP tests, and all the confirmed cases of invasive MD were within these. In all the children with negative LAMP tests NONE had invasive MD. The LAMP test in this population performed better than other more commonly used tests (CRP, WCC or neutrophil counts).

Why does it matter?

Whilst vaccination programmes have thankfully made invasive MD more uncommon, it is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children when it does occur. 

Early diagnosis is challenging, meaning potential overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics or false reassurance for the clinician.

A point of care test for N. meningitidis, which is easy to do, with a low false negative rate has the potential to change this. However, false positives, meaning asymptomatic carriage must be considered.  The study included mostly young children and adolescents who are known to have higher asymptomatic carriage rates of N. meningitis, meaning false positive could be higher in this group.  It has the potential to be used as an adjuvant to PCR and blood culture, but the optimum patient group selection is yet to be determined and it could not be used as a rule out test in low prevalence areas like the UK.

Clinically Relevant Bottom Line:

LAMP testing for IMD, is a potentially useful test to identify children with invasive MD rapidly. However, clinical utility is yet to be determined.

Reviewed by: Sarah Kapur

If we have missed out on something useful or you think other articles are absolutely worth sharing, please add them in the comments!

That’s it for this month. Many thanks to all of our reviewers who have taken the time to scour the literature so you don’t have to.

Bubble Wrap PLUS – January

Cite this article as:
Anke Raaijmakers. Bubble Wrap PLUS – January, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2021. Available at:
https://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.31763

Happy New Year! Most of us have a long list of good intentions for the new year. We hope that keeping up with literature in 2021 is one of them. Here is a new Bubble Wrap Plus, our monthly paediatric Journal Club List provided by Professor Jaan Toelen of the University Hospitals in Leuven (Belgium). This comprehensive list of ‘articles to read’ comes from 34 journals, including Pediatrics, The Journal of Pediatrics, Archives of Disease in Childhood, JAMA Pediatrics, Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, NEJM, and many more.

This month’s list features answers to intriguing questions such as: ‘Is child abuse more prevalent during the pandemic?’, ‘Can the smartphone replace the Bristol Stool Chart?’, ‘Does ‘one hour’ matter in giving antibiotics in septic shock?’, ‘Does social distancing lead to fewer URTIs?’, ‘Are ketones useful at triage?’ and ‘Should we worry about invasive infections in children with OMA?’.

You will find the list is broken down into four sections:

2. Original clinical studies

Physiological responses to facemask application in newborns immediately after birth.

Gaertner VD, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Dec 9

Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome versus Septic Shock: Early Differentiating Features Despite Overlapping Clinical Profiles.

Power A, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 5:S0022-3476(20)31482-7.

Invasive Bacterial Infections in Afebrile Infants Diagnosed With Acute Otitis Media.

McLaren SH, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Dec 7:e20201571.

Invasive Bacterial Infections in Afebrile Infants With Otitis Media: Worry Less but Still Worry.

Ravera J, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Dec 7:e2020039602.

Machine Learning Supports Automated Digital Image Scoring of Stool Consistency in Diapers.

Ludwig T, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Dec 1.

Use of insulin pump therapy is associated with reduced hospital-days in the long-term: a real-world study of 48,756 pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes.

Auzanneau M, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 1.

Prescription of acid inhibitors in infants: an addiction hard to break.

Levy EI, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;179(12):1957-1961.

Use of anti-reflux medications in infants under 1 year of age: a retrospective drug utilization study using national prescription reimbursement data.

O’Reilly D, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;179(12):1963-1967.

Fool me once… treatment exposure to achieve remission in pediatric IBD.

Van Limbergen JE, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;179(12):1921-1924.

Infliximab in young paediatric IBD patients: it is all about the dosing.

Jongsma MME, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;179(12):1935-1944.

 

Diarrheal Deaths After the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccination in 4 Countries.

Paternina-Caicedo A, et al.Pediatrics. 2020 Dec 30:e20193167.

Emergency Visits and Hospitalizations for Child Abuse During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Kaiser SV, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Dec 30:e2020038489.

Association Between Abnormal Fetal Head Growth and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Regev O, et al. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020 Dec 27:S0890-8567(20)32215-2.

High flow in children with respiratory failure: A randomised controlled pilot trial – A paediatric acute respiratory intervention study.

Franklin D, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Dec 30.

Early Skin-to-skin Care with a Polyethylene Bag for Neonatal Hypothermia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Travers CP, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 26:S0022-3476(20)31574-2.

Atypical bartonellosis in children: What do we know?

Lemos AP, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Dec 10.

Alternative Cerebral Fuels in the First Five Days in Healthy Term Infants: The Glucose in Well Babies (GLOW) Study.

Harris DL, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 26:S0022-3476(20)31573-0.

Improving Toddlers’ Healthy Eating Habits and Self-regulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Nix RL, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Dec 28:e20193326.

Bench-top comparison of thermometers used in newborn infants.

Dunne EA, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Dec 28:fetalneonatal-2020-320123.

Pediatric Emergency Department Visits at US Children’s Hospitals During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

DeLaroche AM, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Dec 23:e2020039628.

Sustained Lung Inflations During Neonatal Resuscitation at Birth: A Meta-analysis.

Kapadia VS, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Dec 23:e2020021204.

Association between Baseline Cortisol Serum Concentrations and the Effect of Prophylactic Hydrocortisone in Extremely Preterm Infants.

Renolleau C, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 23:S0022-3476(20)31567-5.

Delayed Administration of Antibiotics beyond the First Hour of Recognition is Associated with Increased Mortality Rates in Children with Sepsis/Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock.

Sankar J, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 23:S0022-3476(20)31545-6.

Association of Cesarean Delivery with Childhood Hospitalization for Infections before 13 Years of Age.

Auger N, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 21:S0022-3476(20)31546-8.

Effect of a Sepsis Screening Algorithm on Care of Children with False-Positive Sepsis Alerts.

Baker AH, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 21:S0022-3476(20)31543-2.

Rates of Presentation, Treatments and Serious Neurologic Disorders Among Children and Young Adults Presenting to US Emergency Departments With Headache.

Ramgopal S, et al. J Child Neurol. 2020 Dec 24:883073820979137.

COVID-19 in children treated with immunosuppressive medication for kidney diseases.

Marlais M, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Dec 21:archdischild-2020-320616.

Audit on awake anorectal manometry: tolerability in children.

Athanasakos E, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Dec 21:archdischild-2020-321083.

A Graded Approach to Intravenous Dextrose for Neonatal Hypoglycemia Decreases Blood Glucose Variability, Time in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and Cost of Stay.

Sen S, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 15:S0022-3476(20)31507-9.

Association of Childhood Growth Hormone Treatment With Long-term Cardiovascular Morbidity.

Tidblad A, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Dec 21:e205199.

Cardiovascular Disease in Former Pediatric Recipients of Growth Hormone: Another Look at Growth Hormone Safety.

Grimberg A. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Dec 21:e205232.

Deamidated Gliadin Antibodies: Do They Add to Tissue Transglutaminase-IgA Assay in Screening For Celiac Disease?

Abdulrahim A, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Dec 16;Publish Ahead of Print.

Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis: A Matched Cohort Study.

Coggins SA, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 16:S0022-3476(20)31505-5.

Autism spectrum disorder and kidney disease.

Clothier J, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2020 Dec 19.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and postnatal growth following extremely preterm birth.

Dassios T, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Dec 17:fetalneonatal-2020-320816.

Long-Term Survival and Causes of Death in Children with Trisomy 21 After Congenital Heart Surgery.

Peterson JK, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 23:S0022-3476(20)31568-7.

Follow-up Blood Cultures in Children With Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

Cardenas-Comfort C, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Dec;146(6):e20201821.

Motor Impairment in Children With Congenital Heart Defects: A Systematic Review.

Bolduc ME, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Dec;146(6):e20200083.

Hospitalised infants due to falls aged less 12 months in New South Wales from 2002 to 2013.

Cooray N, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Dec;56(12):1885-1890.

Risk of traumatic intracranial haemorrhage in children with bleeding disorders.

Bressan S, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Dec;56(12):1891-1897.

Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Adenitis Syndrome – Is It Related to Ethnicity? An Israeli Multicenter Cohort Study.

Amarilyo G, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;227:268-273.

Association Between Fat Mass in Early Life and Later Fat Mass Trajectories.

de Fluiter KS, et al. AMA Pediatr. 2020 Dec 1;174(12):1141-1148.

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders at a Large Academic Center.

Ciciora SL, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;227:53-59.e1.

Effect of Social Distancing Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Incidence of Viral Respiratory Tract Infections in Children in Finland During Early 2020.

Kuitunen I, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Dec;39(12):e423-e427.

Universal screening of high-risk neonates, parents, and staff at a neonatal intensive care unit during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

Cavicchiolo ME, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;179(12):1949-1955.

Risk Factors for Orthostatic Hypertension in Children.

Hu Y, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;227:212-217.e1.

Neurodevelopmental outcomes after moderate to severe neonatal hypoglycemia.

Rasmussen AH, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;179(12):1981-1991.

The utility of ketones at triage: a prospective cohort study.

Durnin S, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Dec;105(12):1157-1161.

Safety and Immunogenicity of Two RNA-Based Covid-19 Vaccine Candidates.

Walsh EE, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 17;383(25):2439-2450.

Does detection of fetal growth restriction improve neonatal outcomes?

Selvaratnam RJ, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Dec 14.

Children and young adults with spinal muscular atrophy treated with nusinersen.

Osredkar D, et al. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2020 Dec 4;30:1-8.

Effect of Early Targeted Treatment of Ductus Arteriosus with Ibuprofen on Survival Without Cerebral Palsy at 2 years in Infants with Extreme Prematurity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Rozé JC, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 8:S0022-3476(20)31488-8.

Time Course of Coronary Artery Aneurysms in Kawasaki Disease.

Tsuda E, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec 7:S0022-3476(20)31484-0.

4. Case reports

Chewing gum bezoar as an unexpected cause of acute intestinal obstruction.

Sinopidis X, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Dec 29.

Unusual presentation of coeliac disease with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

Pathmanandavel K, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Dec 21.

Case 39-2020: A 29-Month-Old Boy with Seizure and Hypocalcemia.

Virkud YV, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 17;383(25):2462-2470.

A Gut Feeling: Abdominal Symptoms as an Initial Presentation of EVALI.

Wekon-Kemeni C, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Dec 30:e20193834.

Sequential Retinal Hemorrhages in an Asymptomatic Child.

Ho DK, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;227:319-320.

If we have missed out on something useful or you think other articles are absolutely worth sharing, please add them in the comments!

The 45th Bubble Wrap

Cite this article as:
DFTB, T. The 45th Bubble Wrap, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2021. Available at:
https://dontforgetthebubbles.com/the-45th-bubble-wrap/

With millions upon millions of journal articles being published every year it is impossible to keep up.  Every month we ask some of our friends from PERUKI (Paediatric Emergency Research in UK and Ireland) to point out something that has caught their eye.

Bubble Wrap PLUS – December 2020

Cite this article as:
Anke Raaijmakers. Bubble Wrap PLUS – December 2020, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2020. Available at:
https://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.31117

Can’t get enough of Bubble Wrap? The Bubble Wrap Plus is a monthly paediatric journal club reading list from Anke Raaijmakers working with Professor Jaan Toelen and his team of the University Hospitals in Leuven. This comprehensive list is developed from 34 journals, including major and subspecialty paediatric journals. We suggest this list can help you discover relevant or interesting articles for your local journal club or simply help you to keep a finger on the pulse of paediatric research.

This month’s list features answers to intriguing questions such as: ‘Is shivering a relevant clinical sign in diagnosing serious bacterial infection?’, ‘Is a bulging fontanelle a good clinical marker for bacterial meningitis?’, ‘What is the value of follow-up blood cultures in children with S aureus bacteraemia?’, ‘What is a recurrence rate of infantile haemangioma after propranolol therapy?’ and ‘What is the prevalence of UTI in infants with URTI?’.

You will find the list is broken down into four sections:

1.Reviews and opinion articles

Understanding primary ciliary dyskinesia and other ciliopathies.

Horani A, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Nov 23:S0022-3476(20)31452-9.

Opening doors: suggested practice for medical professionals for when a child might be close to telling about abuse.

Marchant R, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Nov 24:archdischild-2020-320093.

‘I just wanted someone to ask me’: when to ask (about child sexual abuse).

Debelle G, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Nov 24:archdischild-2019-317033.

Pediatrician Guidance in Supporting Families of Children Who Are Adopted, Fostered, or in Kinship Care.

Jones VF, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov 23:e2020034629.

When a Family Seeks To Exclude Residents From Their Child’s Care.

Largent EA, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov 5:e2020011007.

Paediatric pancreatic diseases.

Coffey MJ, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Nov;56(11):1694-1701.

Coeliac disease in childhood: An overview.

Bishop J, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Nov;56(11):1685-1693.

Neonatal liver disease.

Evans HM, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Nov;56(11):1760-1768.

Liver disease in the older child.

Ee LC. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Nov;56(11):1702-1707.

Diagnosis and management of severe sepsis in the paediatric patient.

Farrell CA. Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Nov 2;25(7):475-476.

Clinical management of sickle cell liver disease in children and young adults.

Kyrana E, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Nov 11:archdischild-2020-319778.

Routine Neuroimaging of the Preterm Brain.

Hand IL, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov;146(5):e2020029082.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus of the Preterm Infant.

Hamrick SEG, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov;146(5):e20201209.

2. Original clinical studies

Shivering has little diagnostic value in diagnosing serious bacterial infection in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Vandenberk M, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Nov 11.

Adverse Childhood Experiences and School Readiness Among Preschool-Aged Children.

Jackson DB, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Nov 23:S0022-3476(20)31435-9.

Follow-up Blood Cultures in Children With Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

Cardenas-Comfort C, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov 25:e20201821.

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: An International Survey.

Bautista-Rodriguez C, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov 24:e2020024554.

Implementing a new method of group toilet training in daycare centres: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

Van Aggelpoel T, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Nov 23.

Clinical Experience with Performing Esophageal Function Testing in Children.

van Lennep M, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Nov 20.

Assessment of 135 794 Pediatric Patients Tested for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Across the United States.

Bailey LC, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Nov 23.

Randomized Controlled Trial of High-Flow Nasal Cannula in Preterm Infants After Extubation.

Uchiyama A, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov 19:e20201101.

Adenovirus Infection-associated Central Nervous System Disease in Children.

Zhang XF, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Nov 16.

Cost-effectiveness of Interventions to Increase HPV Vaccine Uptake.

Spencer JC, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov 16:e20200395.

Recurrence rate of infantile hemangioma after oral propranolol therapy.

Frongia G, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Nov 13.

Somatic symptom and related disorders in a tertiary paediatric hospital: prevalence, reach and complexity.

Wiggins A, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Nov 13.

Use of a Procalcitonin-guided Antibiotic Treatment Algorithm in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

Katz SE, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Nov 10.

Abusive Head Trauma in Day Care Centers.

Rey-Salmon C, et al.  Pediatrics. 2020 Nov 10:e2020013771.

Low-dose or no aspirin administration in acute-phase Kawasaki disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

Chiang MH, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Nov 10:archdischild-2019-318245.

Bulging fontanelle in febrile infants as a predictor of bacterial meningitis.

Takagi D, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Nov 9.

Smoking Intention and Progression From E-Cigarette Use to Cigarette Smoking.

Owotomo O, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov 9:e2020002881.

Acute viral bronchiolitis as a cause of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Ghazaly MMH, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Nov 7:1-6.

Predictors of hospital readmission in infants less than 3 months old.

Mace AO, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Nov 6.

The Effectiveness of Working Memory Training for Children With Low Working Memory.

Spencer-Smith M, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov 6:e20194028.

Survival and causes of death in extremely preterm infants in the Netherlands.

van Beek PE, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Nov 6:

Longitudinal Association Between Participation in Organized Sport and Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood.

Neville RD, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Nov 3:S0022-3476(20)31376-7.

In children with a facial port-wine stain, what facial distribution warrants screening for glaucoma?

Mehan A, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Nov 5:archdischild-2020-319931.

New diagnostic approach of the different types of isolated craniosynostosis.

Kronig SAJ, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Nov 5.

Eating disorders double and acute respiratory infections tumble in hospitalised children during the 2020 COVID shutdown on the Gold Coast.

Jones PD, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Nov 5.

Nephrolithiasis during the first 6 months of life in exclusively breastfed infants.

Yılmaz N, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2020 Nov 5.

Perceptions of non-successful families attending a weight-management clinic.

Cox JS, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Nov 2:archdischild-2020-319558.

How Are They Doing? Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at School Age of Children Born Following Assisted Reproductive Treatments.

Farhi A, et al. J Child Neurol. 2020 Nov 2:883073820967169.

Breastfeeding and Infections in Early Childhood: A Cohort Study.

Christensen N, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Nov;146(5):e20191892.

Gut Microenvironment and Bacterial Invasion in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Zaidi D, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Nov;71(5):624-632.

The Gut Microbiome and the Triple Environmental Hit Concept of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Pathogenesis.

Kellermayer R, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Nov;71(5):589-595.

Feasibility Study of a New Magnetic Resonance Imaging Mini-capsule Device to Measure Whole Gut Transit Time in Paediatric Constipation.

Sharif H, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Nov;71(5):604-611.

Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection in Febrile Infants With Upper Respiratory Tract Symptomatology.

Bolivar P, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Nov;39(11):e380-e382.

Macrolide and Nonmacrolide Resistance with Mass Azithromycin Distribution.

Doan T, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020 Nov 12;383(20):1941-1950.

4. Case reports

Unusual position of the umbilicus in a neonate.

Tsoi SK, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Nov 20:fetalneonatal-2020-321003.

Acholic stools and a small gallbladder: Not always a case of biliary atresia.

Singh H, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Nov;56(11):1812-1813.

An unexpected revelation in a child with recurrent severe headaches.

Loke KY, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Nov 13.

If we have missed out on something useful or you think other articles are absolutely worth sharing, please add them in the comments!

The 44th Bubble Wrap

Cite this article as:
DFTB, T. The 44th Bubble Wrap, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2020. Available at:
https://dontforgetthebubbles.com/the-44th-bubble-wrap/

With millions upon millions of journal articles being published every year it is impossible to keep up.  Every month we ask some of our friends from PERUKI (Paediatric Emergency Research in UK and Ireland) to point out something that has caught their eye.

Article 1: Neurodevelopmental outcomes at the edge of viability.

The 43rd Bubble Wrap

Cite this article as:
DFTB, T. The 43rd Bubble Wrap, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2020. Available at:
https://dontforgetthebubbles.com/the-43rd-bubble-wrap/

With millions upon millions of journal articles being published every year it is impossible to keep up.  Every month we ask some of our friends from PERUKI (Paediatric Emergency Research in UK and Ireland) to point out something that has caught their eye.

Article 1: Is Ketamine the go-to for ET Intubation in critically ill kids?

Bubble Wrap Plus – September 2020

Cite this article as:
Anke Raaijmakers. Bubble Wrap Plus – September 2020, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2020. Available at:
https://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.29169

Here is a new Bubble Wrap Plus, our monthly paediatric Journal Club List provided by Professor Jaan Toelen & his team of the University Hospitals in Leuven (Belgium). This comprehensive list of ‘articles to read’ comes from 34 journals, including Pediatrics, The Journal of Pediatrics, Archives of Disease in Childhood, JAMA Pediatrics, Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, NEJM, and many more.

This month’s list features answers to intriguing questions such as: ‘What is the effect of longer resuscitations at birth on neurodevelopment?’, ‘Is it necessary to evaluate urinary tract infection in children with lower respiratory tract infection?’, ‘What is the effect of social distancing on ‘regular’ URTIs?’, ‘Does maternal pertussis vaccination interfere with neonatal vaccination?’ and ‘Is migraine a common cause for nystagmus in the emergency department?’.

1.Reviews and opinion articles

Thinking fast and slow in the evaluation of injury plausibility in child protection.

Skellern C J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug 11.

The Suffering Child: Claims of Suffering in Seminal Cases and What To Do About Them.

Friedrich AB. Pediatrics. 2020 Aug;146(Suppl 1):S66-S69.

Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Call to Action in Pediatric Primary Care.

Ghastine L, et al . Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 4:e20193327.

Kawasaki disease fact check: Myths, misconceptions and mysteries.

Butters C, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug 8.

Follow the complex bread crumbs: A review of autoinflammation for the general paediatrician.

Tsoukas P, et al. Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug;25(5):279-285.

Plant-Based Milks: A Possible Therapeutic Tool if Correctly Labeled and Prescribed.

Mennini M, et al . J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Jul 30.

The Liver in Sickle Cell Disease.

Lacaille F, et al . J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Jul 30.

Management of Post-hemorrhagic Ventricular Dilatation in the Preterm Infant.

El-Dib M, et al . J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 30:S0022-3476(20)30978-1.

Update on the COVID-19-associated inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents; paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome-temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2.

Singh-Grewal D, et al . J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jul 31.

2. Original clinical studies

Early Feeding in Acute Pancreatitis in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Ledder O, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 12:e20201149.

The Safety of Early Enteral Feeding in Children With Acute Pancreatitis.

Hamilton-Shield J, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 12:e2020007211.

Duration of Resuscitation at Birth, Mortality, and Neurodevelopment: A Systematic Review.

Foglia EE, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 12:e20201449.

Is it necessary to evaluate urinary tract infection in children with lower respiratory tract infection?

Kim JM, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug 8.

Use of oximetry to screen for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea: is one night enough and is 6 hours too much?

Galway NC, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Aug 11:archdischild-2019-318559.

Pediatric SARS-CoV-2: Clinical Presentation, Infectivity, and Immune Responses.

Yonker LM, et al . J Pediatr. 2020 Aug 18:S0022-3476(20)31023-4.

Effect of Social Distancing Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Incidence of Viral Respiratory Tract Infections in Children in Finland During Early 2020.

Kuitunen I, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Jul 28.

Masked paediatricians during the COVID-19 pandemic and communication with children.

Shack AR, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug 8.

Role of children in household transmission of COVID-19.

Kim J, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Aug 7:archdischild-2020-319910.

Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children Without Symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019.

Sola AM, et al . JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Aug 25.

Increased incidence of complicated appendicitis during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Lee-Archer P, et al . J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug;56(8):1313-1314.

Is Nasopharyngeal Swab Comparable With Nasopharyngeal Aspirate to Detect SARS-CoV-2 in Children?

Capecchi E, et al . Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Jul 21.

Community-Based Epidemiology of Hospitalized Acute Kidney Injury.

Parikh RV, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 11:e20192821.

Endocarditis prophylaxis in daily practice of pediatricians and dentists in Flanders.

De Wolf D, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Aug 11.

A 10-year retrospective survey of acute childhood osteomyelitis in Stockholm, Sweden.

von Heideken J, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug 11.

Virtual reality for intravenous placement in the emergency department-a RCT

Goldman RD, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Aug 10.

Bedside Airway Ultrasound in the Evaluation of Neonatal Stridor.

Oulego-Erroz I, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Aug 6:S0022-3476(20)30993-8.

Normal fecal calprotectin levels in healthy children are higher than in adults and decrease with age.

Velasco Rodríguez-Belvís M, et al. Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug;25(5):286-292.

Can Use of Cerebral Oxygenation Predict Developmental Outcomes in Preterm Infants With NEC?

Horne RSC.Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 26:e2020014407.

Cerebral Oxygenation in Preterm Infants With Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Howarth C, et al .Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 26:e20200337.

Junior doctor perceptions of education and feedback on ward rounds.

Modak MB, et al . J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug 26.

Treatment of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome With Medication: A Systematic Review.

Hasan B, et al . J Child Neurol. 2020 Aug 24:883073820948679.

Synchronized Inflations Generate Greater Gravity Dependent Lung Ventilation in Neonates.

Dowse G, et al . J Pediatr. 2020 Aug 19:S0022-3476(20)31029-5.

Maternal Stress During Pregnancy Predicts Infant Infectious and Non-infectious Illness.

Bush NR, et al . J Pediatr. 2020 Aug 19:S0022-3476(20)31027-1.

A Randomized Trial of Closed-Loop Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes.

Breton MD, et al . N Engl J Med. 2020 Aug 27;383(9):836-845.

Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Severe Asthma Exacerbations in Children With Asthma and Low Vitamin D Levels: The VDKA Randomized Clinical Trial.

Forno E, et al . JAMA. 2020 Aug 25;324(8):752-760.

Interference With Pertussis Vaccination in Infants After Maternal Pertussis Vaccination.

Abu-Raya B, et al . Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 4:e20193579.

Management of pain in newborn circumcision: a systematic review.

Rossi S, et al . Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Aug 3.

Extreme prematurity, growth and neurodevelopment at 8 years: a cohort study.

Hickey L, et al . Arch Dis Child. 2020 Aug 3:archdischild-2019-318139.

Genetic Susceptibility to Life-threatening Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Previously Healthy Infants.

López EL, et al . Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Jul 17.

Outcomes Following Post-Hemorrhagic Ventricular Dilatation among Extremely Low Gestational Age Infants.

Shankaran S, et al . J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 30:S0022-3476(20)30979-3.

Skin-to-skin care alters regional ventilation in stable neonates.

Schinckel NF, et al . Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Jul 30:fetalneonatal-2020-319136.

School-age outcomes following intraventricular haemorrhage in infants born extremely preterm.

Hollebrandse NL, et al . Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Jul 30:fetalneonatal-2020-318989.

Characteristics of Acute Nystagmus in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

Garone G, et al . Pediatrics. 2020 Aug;146(2):e20200484.

3. Guidelines and Best Evidence

Automated oxygen control in preterm infants, how does it work and what to expect: a narrative review.

Salverda HH, et al . Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Jul 30:fetalneonatal-2020-318918.

Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Loe IM, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Aug 10.

Clinical Management of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in Neonates, Children, and Adolescents.

McMullan BJ, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 5:e20200134.

Universal screening of high-risk neonates, parents, and staff at a neonatal intensive care unit during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

Cavicchiolo ME, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Aug 7:1-7.

Fluid management during diabetic ketoacidosis in children: guidelines, consensus, recommendations and clinical judgement.

Tasker RC. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Aug 26:archdischild-2020-320164.

Clinical Prediction Rule for Distinguishing Bacterial From Aseptic Meningitis.

Mintegi S, et al . Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 25:e20201126.

Reducing Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care for Respiratory Illness.

Kronman MP, et al . Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 3:e20200038.

Reopening schools during the COVID-19 pandemic: governments must balance the uncertainty and risks of reopening schools against the clear harms associated with prolonged closure.

Viner RM, et al . Arch Dis Child. 2020 Aug 3:archdischild-2020-319963.

North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Position Paper: Plant-based Milks.

Merritt RJ, et al . J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Aug;71(2):276-281.

Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Theoretical Considerations and Available Evidence.

Klompas M, et al . JAMA. 2020 Aug 4;324(5):441-442.

4. Case Reports

A 16-Year-Old Boy With Cough and Fever in the Era of COVID-19.

Anderson KR, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Aug 12:e2020008235.

An Infant Presenting with Large, Asymmetric Tongue.

Golomb MR, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Aug 7:S0022-3476(20)30992-6.

Tracheal Buckling in a Young Child.

Miyamoto M, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Aug 6:S0022-3476(20)30991-4.

Methaemoglobinaemia in two exclusively breastfed infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome.

Geljic A, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug 7.

Recurrent pneumothorax in a child.

Rajvanshi N, et al . J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug 5.

Sequential Retinal Hemorrhages in an Asymptomatic Child.

Ho DK, et al . J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 30:S0022-3476(20)30980-X.

Agranulocytosis and lymphopenia in neonate: A neonatal emergency.

Rustogi D, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Aug 7.

If we have missed out on something useful or you think other articles are absolutely worth sharing, please add them in the comments!

Bubble Wrap Live + Connected

Cite this article as:
Team DFTB. Bubble Wrap Live + Connected, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2020. Available at:
https://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.28816

In just a few short days we will be hosting our first virtual conference, DFTB Live + Connected. If you haven’t checked out the program yet then head over to www.dftblive.com. There is still time to get a ticket and support DFTB.

The conference proper starts at 0600 UK / 0800 KENYA / 1500 SYDNEY / 1700 FIJI / 0100 NY

Our Bubble Wrap Live panel is hosted by Damian Roland, and comprises of the talented :-

  • Ben Wachira
  • Dani Hall
  • Simon Craig
  • Alison Boast
BubbleWrap Live start times

To give you a head start and allow you to join in the conversation at #DFTBLive here are the papers they are going to discuss.

Bubble Wrap Plus July/August 2020

Bubble Wrap Plus – July/August 2020

Cite this article as:
Anke Raaijmakers. Bubble Wrap Plus – July/August 2020, Don't Forget the Bubbles, 2020. Available at:
https://doi.org/10.31440/DFTB.28628

Here is our bumper Bubble Wrap Plus, our monthly paediatric Journal Club List provided by Professor Jaan Toelen & his team of the University Hospitals in Leuven (Belgium). This comprehensive list of ‘articles to read’ comes from 34 journals, including Pediatrics, The Journal of Pediatrics, Archives of Disease in Childhood, JAMA Pediatrics, Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, NEJM, and many more.

This bubble wrap plus list features answers to intriguing questions such as: ‘Should we blame acid reflux for distress in infants?’, ‘Is there an association between enteric viruses and NEC?’, ‘Is there a value in US guided surfactant administration?’, ‘Do healthy children with a cervical lymph node need an ultrasound?’ and ‘Was there an outbreak of anorexia co-occurring with the pandemic?’.

1.Reviews and opinion articles

JULY HIGHLIGHTS

Ethical and Public Health Implications of Targeted Screening for Congenital Cytomegalovirus.

Gievers LL, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 26.

Reintroducing Dyslexia: Early Identification and Implications for Pediatric Practice.

Sanfilippo J, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 23.

Who has been missed? Dramatic decrease in numbers of children seen for child protection assessments during the pandemic.

Bhopal S, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jun 18.

The role of dietary fibre and prebiotics in the paediatric diet.

Boctor D. Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jun;25(4):263-264.

Do facemasks protect against COVID-19?

Isaacs D, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jun;56(6):976-977.

To what extent do children transmit SARS-CoV-2 virus?

Isaacs D, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jun;56(6):978-979.

Should I be worried about carrying the virus that causes COVID-19 home on my clothes?

Howard-Jones A, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jun;56(6):980.

Maturation of glomerular filtration rate in neonates and infants: an overview.

Iacobelli S, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2020 Jun 11.

Microbiome in health and disease.

Giles EM, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jun 5.

Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in Pediatric Research: Current State, Future Prospects, and Examples in Perioperative and Critical Care.

Lonsdale H, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun;221S:S3-S10.

Clinical Genomics in Critically Ill Infants and Children.

Raymond FL. JAMA. 2020 Jun 23;323(24):2480-2482.

AUGUST HIGHLIGHTS

Is Ileocolonoscopy Necessary When Evaluating Abdominal Pain and Nonbloody Diarrhea?

Sullivan JS, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jul 21:e20200699

Water fluoridation: current challenges.

Furness J, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jul 15:archdischild-2019-318545.

Isolated disproportionately raised alkaline phosphatase: Should we worry?

Lee YL, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jul 6.

Aplastic anaemia: Current concepts in diagnosis and management.

Furlong E, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jul;56(7):1023-1028

Little Doubt That CBT Works for Pediatric OCD.

Storch EA, et al. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020 Jul;59(7):785-787.

Opioids or Steroids for Pneumonia or Sinusitis.

Phang KG, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jul 2:e20193690.

Diagnosis of rheumatic fever: the need for a better test.

Osowicki J, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jun 29:archdischild-2020-318970.

2. Original clinical studies

JULY HIGHLIGHTS

A randomized trial of parenteral nutrition using a mixed lipid emulsion containing fish oil in infants of extremely low birth weight: Neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 and 24 months corrected age, a secondary outcome analysis.

Thanhaeuser M, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 23.

Stop, think SCORTCH: rethinking the traditional ‘TORCH’ screen in an era of re-emerging syphilis.

Penner J, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jun 25.

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the early diagnosis of invasive meningococcal disease in children.

Waterfield T, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jun 25.

Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission: a meta-analysis.

Goh XL, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Jun 25.

Paediatric femur fractures-the value of contextual information on judgement in possible child abuse cases: are we bias?

Loos MHJ, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 17.

Metabolic risk factors in children with kidney stone disease: an update.

Spivacow FR, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2020 Jun 20.

Association of Chorioamnionitis with Cerebral Palsy at Two Years after Spontaneous Very Preterm Birth: The EPIPAGE-2 Cohort Study.

Maisonneuve E, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul;222:71-78.e6.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia in neonates: the role of point of care lung ultrasound.

Tusor N, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 26.

Early Puberty and Telomere Length in Preadolescent Girls and Mothers.

Koss KJ, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul;222:193-199.e5.

National Variations in Recent Trends of Sudden Unexpected Infant Death Rate in Western Europe.

de Visme S, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 22.

Parenting Interventions in Pediatric Primary Care: A Systematic Review.

Smith JD, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 24.

Risk Factors for Severe Anaphylaxis in Children.

Olabarri M, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 13.

Epileptic Spasms in Patients With Down Syndrome: Experiences From Caregivers.

Kats DJ, et al. J Child Neurol. 2020 Jun 25:883073820932770.

Antenatally detected urinary tract dilatation: a 12-15-year follow-up.

Herthelius M, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2020 Jun 23.

Nasal insertion depths for neonatal intubation.

Maiwald CA, et al.Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Jun 22.

Body mass index rebound, weight gain in puberty, and risk of cardiovascular disease.

Arisaka O, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 19.

How to improve CPAP failure prediction in preterm infants with RDS: a pilot study.

Radicioni M, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 19.

Reference values for the external genitalia of full-term and pre-term female neonates.

Castets S, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Jun 19.

Corticosteroids to prevent kidney scarring in children with a febrile urinary tract infection: a randomized trial.

Shaikh N, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2020 Jun 15.

Ambulatory blood pressure abnormalities in children with migraine.

Yılmaz S, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2020 Jun 17.

Long-term follow-up of coronary artery lesions in children in Kawasaki syndrome.

Maccora I, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 15.

Infant With SARS-CoV-2 Infection Causing Severe Lung Disease Treated With Remdesivir.

Frauenfelder C, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 18.

Reducing Abdominal Radiographs to Diagnose Constipation in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

Moriel G, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 14.

Cardiovascular Outcomes in Young Adulthood in a Population-Based Very Low Birth Weight Cohort.

Harris SL, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 14.

Early Use of Antibiotics Is Associated with a Lower Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm, Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Neomune-NeoNutriNet Cohort Study.

Li Y, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 14.

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Multi-institutional Study from New York City.

Kaushik S, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 14.

Reductions in Parent Interest in Receiving Antibiotics Following a 90-Second Video Intervention in Outpatient Pediatric Clinics.

Goggin K, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 15.

Growth curves: The experiences of Canadian paediatricians in their first 5 years of independent practice.

Schrewe B, , et al. Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jun;25(4):235-240.

Pacifiers and the reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome.

Smith RW, et al. Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jun;25(4):205-206.

Improving HPV Vaccination Rates: A Stepped-Wedge Randomized Trial.

Perkins RB, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 15.

Parental Hesitancy About Routine Childhood and Influenza Vaccinations: A National Survey.

Kempe A, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 15.

Covid-19, Kawasaki disease, and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children.

Bassareo PP, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 12.

Neonatal antibiotics and infantile colic in term born infants.

Kamphorst K, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 12.

Effect of Nonintervention vs Oral Ibuprofen in Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Sung SI, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Jun 15.

Typical RSV cough: myth or reality? A diagnostic accuracy study.

Binnekamp M, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 13.

Validation of the Early Language Scale.

Visser-Bochane MI, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 13.

Multicenter Analysis of Acquired Undescended Testis and Its Impact on the Timing of Orchidopexy.

Boehme P, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 9.

A Prospective Study of Costs Associated with the Evaluation of β-Lactam Allergy in Children.

Sobrino M, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 9.

Novel Coronavirus Infection in Febrile Infants Aged 60 Days and Younger.

McLaren SH, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 11.

Recurrent sudden unexpected death in infancy: a case series of sibling deaths.

Garstang JJ, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jun 11.

Polyethylene Glycol Dosing for Constipation in Children under 24 months: A Systematic Review.

Rachel H, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Jun 9.

The Role of the Placenta in Perinatal Stroke: A Systematic Review.

Roy B, et al. J Child Neurol. 2020 Jun 9:883073820929214.

Mental Health Problems and Risk of Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in Adolescents.

Orri M, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 8.

Primum non nocere: lingual frenotomy for breastfeeding problems, not as innocent as generally accepted.

Van Biervliet S, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 6.

Group B Streptococcus Meningitis in an Infant with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Detection.

Barton MS, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 4.

Faecal calprotectin levels during the first year of life in healthy children.

Günaydın Şahin BS, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jun 5.

Parent-Child Agreement on Postconcussion Symptoms in the Acute Postinjury Period.

Gagnon I, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 4.

Does topical local anaesthesia reduce the pain and distress of nasogastric tube insertion in children?

Mort DO, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jul;105(7):697-700.

Effect of ondansetron on vomiting associated with acute gastroenteritis in a developing country: a meta-analysis.

Wu HL, Zhan X. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 3.

Comparison of the Prevalence of Infantile Colic Between Pediatric Migraine and Other Types of Pediatric Headache.

Levinsky Y, et al. J Child Neurol. 2020 Jun 3:883073820924264.

Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Disease Severity in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Children’s Hospital in New York City, New York.

Zachariah P, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Jun 3:e202430.

Using Mobile Device Sampling To Objectively Measure Screen Use in Clinical Care.

Milkovich LM, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 1.

Young Children’s Use of Smartphones and Tablets.

Radesky JS, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 1.

Selection and Insertion of Vascular Access Devices in Pediatrics: A Systematic Review.

Paterson RS, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun;145(Suppl 3):S243-S268.

Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Adolescent, Young Adult, and Older Patients With Type 1 Diabetes.

Agarwal S, et al. JAMA. 2020 Jun 16;323(23):2384-2385.

AUGUST HIGHLIGHTS

Anticonvulsant long-term and rescue medication: The children’s perspective.

Woltermann S, et al. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2020 Jul 14:

Chronic diarrhoea in children: A practical algorithm-based approach.

Shankar S, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jul;56(7):1029-1038

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by Children.

Merckx J, et al. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2020 Jul 21;117(33-34):553-560.

Does selective evaluation of gastric aspirates in preterm infants influence time to full enteral feeding?

Kennedy L, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jul;56(7):1150-1154.

Severe motion sickness in infants and children.

Lipson S, et al. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2020 Jul 10:S1090-3798(20)30118-5

Risk Factors for Orthostatic Hypertension in Children.

Hu Y, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 12:S0022-3476(20)30873-8.

Distress in Infants and Young Children: Don’t Blame Acid Reflux.

Salvatore S, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Jul 6.

As soon as possible in IgE-cow’s milk allergy immunotherapy.

Boné Calvo J, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 11.

COVID-19: minimising contaminated aerosol spreading during CPAP treatment.

Donaldsson S, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Jul 15:fetalneonatal-2020-319431.

A Comprehensive Clinical Genetics Approach to Critical Congenital Heart Disease in Infancy.

Shikany AR, et al. Pediatr. 2020 Jul 24:S0022-3476(20)30964-1

The association between enteric viruses and necrotizing enterocolitis.

Cheng C, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 22

Intrauterine Device Use in Adolescents With Disabilities.

Schwartz BI, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jul 23:e20200016.

Social cognition and executive functions in children and adolescents with focal epilepsy.

Operto FF, et al. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2020 Jul 13:S1090-3798(20)30127-6.

Association Between Community Water Fluoridation and Severe Dental Caries Experience in 4-Year-Old New Zealand Children.

Schluter PJ, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Jul 27

Neurodevelopmental outcomes after moderate to severe neonatal hypoglycemia.

Helleskov AR, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 14.

Associations of Birth Weight for Gestational Age with Child Health and Neurodevelopment among Term Infants: A Nationwide Japanese Population-Based Study.

Tamai K, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 5:S0022-3476(20)30829-5

Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from Adults to Children.

Yung CF, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 4:S0022-3476(20)30852-0.

Use of Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurement in the Evaluation of Elevated Blood Pressures in Children and Adolescents.

Hanevold CD, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 4:S0022-3476(20)30762-9.

Coronary Dilatation and Endothelial Inflammation in Neonates born to mothers with Preeclampsia.

Lin IC, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 23:S0022-3476(20)30958-6.

Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurement for the Diagnosis of Hypertension.

Filler G, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 23:S0022-3476(20)30965-3

Effects of Neonatal Hyperglycemia on Retinopathy of Prematurity and Visual Outcomes at 7 Years of Age: A Matched Cohort Study.

Leung M, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Aug;223:42-50.e2

Evaluation of Chest Radiographs of Children with Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Smith WT, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Aug;223:120-127.e3.

Delayed vs Immediate Cord Clamping Changes Oxygen Saturation and Heart Rate Patterns in the First Minutes after Birth.

Padilla-Sánchez C, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 22:S0022-3476(20)30902-1

Early surfactant replacement guided by lung ultrasound in preterm newborns with RDS: the ULTRASURF randomised controlled trial.

Rodriguez-Fanjul J, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 24:1-8.

Lung ultrasound-guided surfactant administration: time for a personalized, physiology-driven therapy.

Raimondi F, de Winter JP, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 24

Do otherwise well, healthy children with palpable cervical lymph nodes require investigation with neck ultrasound?

Paddock M, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jul 24:archdischild-2020-319648

Outbreak of anorexia nervosa admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Haripersad YV, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jul 24:archdischild-2020-319868.

Frequency of Multifocal Disease and Pyogenic Arthritis of the Hip in Infants with Osteoarticular Infection in Three Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

Rubin LG, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 21:S0022-3476(20)30954-9.

Effect of Cognitive and Physical Rest on Persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms Following a Pediatric Head Injury.

Root JM, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 20:S0022-3476(20)30906-9

Celiac Disease in Children with Functional Constipation: A School Based Multicity Study.

Fifi AC, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 19:S0022-3476(20)30951-3.

Association between NICU Admission and Supine Sleep Positioning, Breastfeeding, and Postnatal Smoking among Mothers of Late Preterm Infants.

Hannan KE, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 19:S0022-3476(20)30952-5.

Test Strategies to Predict Inflammatory Bowel Disease Among Children With Nonbloody Diarrhea.

Van de Vijver E, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jul 21:e20192235.

Effect of cumulative dexamethasone dose in preterm infants on neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes: a Western Australia experience.

Buchiboyina AK, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Jul 20:fetalneonatal-2020-319147.

Predicting Nasal High-Flow Treatment Success in Newborn Infants with Respiratory Distress Cared for in Non-Tertiary Hospitals.

McKimmie-Doherty M, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 14:S0022-3476(20)30882-9.

Neonatal Candida auris infection: Management and prevention strategies – A single centre experience.

Chandramati J, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jul 16.

Flattening the (BMI) Curve: Timing of Child Obesity Onset and Cardiovascular Risk.

Armstrong S, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jul 6:e20201353

Body Mass Index From Early to Late Childhood and Cardiometabolic Measurements at 11 to 12 years.

Lycett K, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jul 6:e20193666

Parent Technology Use, Parent-Child Interaction, Child Screen Time, and Child Psychosocial Problems among Disadvantaged Families.

Wong RS, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 3:S0022-3476(20)30849-0

Being Mindful About Follow-up Care After Pediatric Hospitalization for Bronchiolitis.

Berry JG, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Jul 6:e201945.

Multivariate risk and clinical signs evaluations for early-onset sepsis on late preterm and term newborns and their economic impact.

Benincasa BC, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 4.

Time to positive blood culture in early onset neonatal sepsis: A retrospective clinical study and review of the literature.

Marks L, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jul 3

Neonatal bacterial meningitis versus ventriculitis: a cohort-based overview of clinical characteristics, microbiology and imaging.

Peros T, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 3

The utility of ketones at triage: a prospective cohort study.

Durnin S, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jul 3:archdischild-2019-318425.

Duration of Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Viral Shedding in Children With SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Data.

Xu CLH, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Jun 30.

Clinical Severity of Gastroenteritis in Children Hospitalized With Rotavirus Infection Before and Post Introduction of a National Rotavirus Vaccination Program in Australia.

Clarke M, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Jun 30.

Grasping Gaming: Parent Management Training for Excessive Videogame Use in Children.

Hughes T, et al. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020 Jul;59(7):794-796.

Internet-Related Behaviors and Psychological Distress Among Schoolchildren During COVID-19 School Suspension.

Chen IH, et al. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020 Jun 26:S0890-8567(20)30385-3.

Obesity is associated with severe clinical course in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura.

Dundar HA, et al. Pediatr Nephrol. 2020 Jun 29.

Effect of opaque wraps for pulse oximeter sensors: randomised cross-over trial.

Kannan Loganathan P, et al. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Jul 1:fetalneonatal-2020-319049.

E-cigarette Marketing Regulations and Youth Vaping: Cross-Sectional Surveys, 2017-2019.

Hammond D, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jul;146(1):e20194020.

Symptom Score: A New Instrument to Assess Orthostatic Intolerance in Children and Adolescents.

Cai H, et al. J Child Neurol. 2020 Jun 29:883073820936025.

Antibiotics for Childhood Pneumonia – Do We Really Know How Long to Treat?

Chang AB, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jul 2;383(1):77-79.

Amoxicillin for 3 or 5 Days for Chest-Indrawing Pneumonia in Malawian Children.

Ginsburg AS, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jul 2;383(1):13-23.

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in U.S. Children and Adolescents.

Feldstein LR, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jul 23;383(4):334-346.

Childhood Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome – A New Challenge in the Pandemic.

Levin M. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jul 23;383(4):393-395.

3. Guidelines and Best Evidence

JULY HIGHLIGHTS

Perineal Groove: An Anorectal Malformation Network, Consortium Study.

Samuk I, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul;222:207-212.

The Implementation of Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences in Pediatric Primary Care.

DiGangi MJ, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jul;222:174-179.e2.

Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients Living in Europe: Results of the EuroPedHP Registry 2013-2016.

Kori M, et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Jun 11.

Updated Strategies for Pulse Oximetry Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Disease.

Martin GR,  et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 4.

AUGUST HIGHLIGHTS

Barrier Protection Use by Adolescents During Sexual Activity.

Grubb LK; COMMITTEE ON ADOLESCENCE. Pediatrics. 2020 Jul 20:e2020007237.

Long-Acting Reversible Contraception: Specific Issues for Adolescents.

Menon S; COMMITTEE ON ADOLESCENCE. Pediatrics. 2020 Jul 20:e2020007252.

Nasal swab as preferred clinical specimen for COVID-19 testing in children.

Palmas G, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Jul 1.

What is the effectiveness and safety of different interventions in the management of drooling in children with cerebral palsy?

Khajuria S, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jun 30:archdischild-2020-319309

4. Case Reports

JULY HIGHLIGHTS

A case of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome highlighting related key paediatric issues.

Leveille CF, et al. Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jun;25(Suppl 1):S7-S9.

New Onset Chorea in a Previously Healthy 7-Year-Old.

Delaney MA, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 10.

An 8-Year-Old Boy With Fever, Splenomegaly, and Pancytopenia.

Offenbacher R, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 12.

Case 5-2020: A 32-Day-Old Male Infant with a Fall.

Rothstein P.  N Engl J Med. 2020 Jun 11;382(24):2381.

Elevated Serum Creatinine: But Is It Renal Failure?

Wong Vega M, et al. Pediatrics. 2020 Jun 17.

AUGUST HIGHLIGHTS

Rare cutaneous manifestations of parvovirus B19 infection in a child.

Yan J, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jul 28. doi: 10.1111/jpc.15030.

A Toddler with Sudden Scrotal Swelling.

Trombetta A, et al. J Pediatr. 2020 Aug;223:220-221

Evolving Peri-Anal Mass in 2-Year-Old.

Yang A, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Jun 16.

Myocarditis in a 16-year-old boy positive for SARS-CoV-2.

Gnecchi M, et al. Lancet. 2020 Jun 27;395(10242):e116

Case 20-2020: A 7-Year-Old Girl with Severe Psychological Distress after Family Separation.

Gartland MG, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jun 25;382(26):2557-2565.

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