Renal Failure

Definition: acute kidney injury (AKI) is failure of the kidneys to regulate electrolyte, acid-base and fluid homeostasis adequately with concomitant reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). pRIFLE (paediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Criteria). Chronic renal failure: hyperfiltration, estimated creatinine clearance <75 ml/min/1.73m2 , hypertension, microalbuminuria.

Microscopic haematuria - dipstick

Microscopic haematuria

A previously well 3 year old girl presented to your ED with a history of fever. You have confidently diagnosed otitis media and are just about to discharge the child when the nurse mentions a urine was requested at triage and has come back positive for blood.

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