Epistaxis - nosebleed

Epistaxis

A 9-year-old boy is brought to see you. He has been having recurrent nose bleeds over the last few weeks. They may occur at any time but many of them happen at night, when the child wakes from sleep with blood on the pillow and bedclothes. Mum is concerned as the bleeding seems to last…

Intubation

Indication: to secure the airway: severe airway obstruction/inadequate protective reflexes (coma or prolonged seizures) to facilitate ventilation: hypoxaemic and/or hypercarbic respiratory failure Intubation should NOT be attempted by the inexperienced if more skilled personnel are available. Two doctors always present if possible! Assessment: how urgent is the intubation? anatomical abnormality, which would suggest difficult intubation?…

Otitis externa - swimmer

Otitis externa

A 7 year old boy is brought to ED by mum. He has ear pain (otalgia), reduction in his hearing and a little discharge from the ear. His symptoms have been getting worse over the last couple of days and now he is in a lot of pain despite analgesia, given by the parents.